Fredy De Jesus cuenca Gusman. Father given name surname Born Mary King de jure Judaea found in 3 trees View all. Maria de Jesus Garcia Cuenca found in 2 trees View all.
Jesus Santos Quenga found in 1 tree View all. Dario de Jesus Quinchia yepes found in 1 tree View all. Birth Antioquia Colombia. Jesus King. Jesus King from tree Shaw Family Tree. Jesus Alig Quienga found in 1 tree View all. Jesus Alig Quienga from tree Laurasian Forest. Father given name surname year Record information. Mother given name surname year. Jesus R. Guiang from tree Lalaine's Family Tree. Jesus Camacho found in 2 trees View all.
Jesus Camacho from tree Watson Family Tree. Father given name surname. Father given name surname year Mother given name surname year Spouse Armando Urizar. Cows that were purchased had higher antibody titers to IBR than those born on the farm. The age of the cow was the only risk factor significantly associated with the status of cows to IBR 6.
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This research found that sex has an association with IBR. The prevalence for cattle farms in the departments of Antioquia and Valle was Bovine Viral Diarrhea BVDV is a pestivirus infection affecting cattle and presents a wide range of clinical manifestations. In pregnant cows the range of signs goes from embryonic death, abortion or stillbirths to the birth of persistently infected PI calves A study performed in on the distribution of BVDV in the genital system indicated that the specific antigen is found in cells such as macrophages, around the outside of the ovaries 11, The BVD virus is usually transmitted between animals by inhalation or ingestion of nasal secretions, saliva, urine or feces.
The virus can also be transmitted generally in semen from an infected bull or by transfer of contaminated embryos. Exposure of the fetus can result in embryonic absorption, mummifications, abortions, congenital malformations or the birth of apparently normal calves that are persistently infected and shed large amounts of BVD The mortality rate is 5. In Chile, in , the prevalence and distribution of brucellosis, bovine leucosis, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was established, by using a methodology that determines milk with 3 samples.
It was found that The city has a mm annual precipitation, average temperature of These farms were extensively managed, cows appending most of the time on fenced pastures, with no physical separation between heifers and adult cows. Cattle population : Farm prevalence levels were obtained by a cross-sectional study using a strategy of simple random sampling of animals from dairy farms in the municipality of Pasto, as follows:.
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N is the number of dairy cows in the city. Q: Expected prevalence. Among the inclusion criteria were: breeding cows that have calved at least once and have been in the farms for more than 6 months.
Variables : Epidemiological data were collected through a structure fill in questionnaire, obtained by a direct interview with the cattle farmer. Health: Annual abortion, deworming and vaccination. Pasture management: Organic fertilizer, manure as fertilizer. Origin of replacements cows: External, same farm or mixed.
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Biosecurity: Disposal of fetuses and placentas, and water source. Presence of animals: Sheep, horses, pigs, cats, dogs. The plates were read at nm and the results were given in optical density values expressed in percentage of positivity for antibodies to IBR and BVD.
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The formula used was:. When the result was above 10 it was considered positive and if it was below 10, it was considered negative. Data analysis : The apparent prevalence of antibodies to BVDV and IBR was estimated from the ratio of positive results to the total number of cattle examined. The goodness of fit was assessed with statistics Hosmer - Lemeshow. The farms only had records of vaccination against mouth and foot disease and brucellosis. Two variables were associated with seropositivity to BVDV: Abortion and the external acquisition of replacements, either at markets or other farms or regions table 2.
Only one variable was determined as a risk factor associated with the seroprevalence of antibodies for the bovine virus type I BHV-1 : The bull that is used instead of the artificial insemination.
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The Odds Ratio is described in table 3. Seroprevalence in this cattle population A previous report on seroprevalence to IBR in non vaccinated dairy herds from the same region showed an animal seroprevalence, in , of High prevalence to IBR in other Colombian regions was observed. The high seroprevalence This probably is an indicator of the presence of PI animals under this type of management. Carbonero; et al in , in Ecuador, carried out a study with animals belonging to herds, and he reported a BHV-1 seroprevalence of In this work, like in our study, the population included cows older than 6 months to avoid maternal antibodies and false positive.
These values are higher compared to the results found in Pasto, but not to those from other regions of Colombia. However, Gerdien van Schaik et al in assume that the most important risk factors for the introduction of BHV-1 are direct and lengthy contacts between unfamiliar cattle, such as cattle purchased and cattle shows.
In other counties, it is considered a risk factor for IBR the direct contact between animals or workers and visitors to farms Other variables that have been reported as risk factors, such as those reported by Carbonero; et al 30 , who found in Ecuador, as a risk factor associated with BHV-1, the farms located under m over the sea level, and not the herds in colder areas -at a higher altitude- like the farms in this study that were over m over sea level. The same authors found, as a risk factor, the average slopes of the properties topographic features similar to Pasto , which may be explained by the continuing effort to which animals are subjected in a feeding system based on natural pastures on slopes.
In this regard Luz-zago; et al 33 in , reported in northern Italy that among the risks of introducing the virus, the cattle trade is This cattle trade is similar to the way of acquisition of animals reported in this study. Mainar Jaime et al 34 found no significant association between BVDV and abortion but related to other reproductive parameters such as infertility or embryonic death.
Due to the type of herd management carried out in this population, these results could indicate the absence of PI animal and does not indicate existing disease in animals serologically positive, but suggests that at some point in their lives they were exposed to the disease. The seroprevalence of IBR in Pasto, from to the present, have not had greater variations in contrast to other regions of the country.
Under these circumstances, and according to this study, dairy health programmes should be directed to avoid the reintroduction of the virus into the herds through persistently or transiently infected animals, because purchasing cattle is the main factor related to serpositivity in the area. En Vet Microbiol, Enero Persistence and Reactivation of Bovine Herpesviruz 1 in the tonsils of latently infectes calves. En: Jour. An epidemiologic study of late term abortions in dairy cattle in Denmark.
En: Prev Vet Med.